Beta cells are cells in the pancreas that produce and release insulin in response to blood glucose levels. In people with type 2 diabetes, the beta cells need to work harder to produce enough insulin to control high blood sugar. This can cause beta cells to fail to work properly to regulate blood sugar.
Long-term high blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes require the work of beta cells so that they can produce enough insulin to lower their blood sugar.
This overactivity can lead to the loss of beta cells or the inability of beta cells to perform their function effectively. As a result of this cycle of loss of beta cell function, the body may not be able to produce enough insulin to control blood sugar.
In this article, we look at the role of beta cells, the effects of type 2 diabetes on insulin և beta cells, and how to prevent and manage beta cell function loss in type 2 diabetes.
Beta cells are cells of the pancreas that produce and release the hormone insulin. Insulin helps control blood sugar or glucose levels in the body.
When blood sugar rises, for example, after eating, beta cells respond by releasing stored insulin and continuing to release the excess.
People with type 2 diabetes have had high levels of glucose for a long time and are unable to produce enough insulin or use it effectively to lower their blood sugar.
Beta cells need to work harder to release insulin to control high blood sugar. Studies show that overcrowding of beta cells can cause them to stop working normally or die.
This reduces the number of beta cells available to produce and release insulin, which increases the workload of the remaining beta cells and can lead to further beta cell loss.
Insulin resistance develops in the early stages of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs when the body հյուս tissues և cells do not absorb glucose for energy, which leads to high blood glucose levels. Then beta cells may not be able to produce enough insulin to control blood sugar.
Find out what high blood sugar can be here.
Amylin և C-peptide
Beta cells also produce a hormone called amylin. Amylin helps control blood sugar by slowing down the rate at which glucose enters the bloodstream.
C-peptide is a by-product of insulin production. It also helps to repair arterial walls, prevent blood vessel problems and damage nerves.
Beta cells produce equal amounts of C-peptide insulin at the same time. This means that doctors can use a C-peptide test to monitor people with diabetes. A blood test measures the level of C-peptides, which can show how much insulin the body produces.
According to research, a person with type 2 diabetes may already have lost about 50% of beta cell function by the time they are diagnosed. This means that about half of their beta cells are dead or unable to function properly.
This loss is irreversible, և beta cells are unable to produce enough insulin to regulate healthy blood sugar levels. Without treatment, type 2 diabetes can develop, and further beta cell loss can occur.
However, a 2019 study found that beta-cell loss is reversible in the early stages of type 2 diabetes and does not cause permanent damage. Excess fat loss in cells can lead to the restoration of proper function of beta cells and the elimination of type 2 diabetes.
The 2019 study included 40 people who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes two years before the study by following a weight loss diet.
Two years later, 20 participants remained in remission, 13 participants became obese, had relapses, and 7 participants were not available for investigation.
The researchers measured glucose levels before losing weight, 5 1 և 2 years after 5 months of weight loss. A blood glucose level below a certain level without the use of type 2 diabetes drugs meant that the participants were in remission.
The authors of the study found that the remission of type 2 diabetes was stable for 2 years, as long as the weight loss was minimal. This release meant a gradual return to the proper function of the beta cell mass.
Depending on your body weight, beta cells are usually secreted around in adults
The body releases half of these levels after eating due to the increase in blood glucose levels during digestion, մնացած releases the remaining insulin in response to the body’s needs.
During stressful events, the body releases hormones such as adrenaline, which block the release of insulin. This raises blood glucose levels, helping the body cope with stress.
Some medications, including incretin-based medications և SGLT2 inhibitors, can help treat type 2 diabetes և improve beta cell function.
Concretin-based medications help regulate blood glucose levels. Incretin is a hormone that stimulates the production of insulin և helps to reduce the rate of blood glucose penetration from food.
- dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors such as alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin և sitagliptin
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues, such as albiglutide, dulaglutide, esenatide, liraglutide, lycisenatide և semaglutide
Moreover, incretin-based drugs regulate insulin production depending on the amount of glucose in the blood. This prevents overproduction of insulin, stops excessively low glucose levels, which can also damage beta cells.
SGLT2 inhibitors are another type of drug that can help treat type 2 diabetes and reduce the demand for beta cells.
SGLT2 inhibitors help increase the amount of glucose that the body excretes in the urine. SGLT2 inhibitors can also help you lose weight and reduce your risk of heart problems.
Learn more about diabetes medications here.
While medications can help, lifestyle changes can be important steps a person can take to prevent or manage type 2 diabetes.
Individuals can reduce their food intake if necessary և Make sure they exercise regularly. These factors help reduce beta cell overload և increase insulin sensitivity. Increased insulin sensitivity means that the body can use insulin more effectively to better control blood sugar.
For people with type 2 diabetes, following a balanced diet and exercising regularly can help control the condition and prevent it from progressing.
Achieving or maintaining a moderate body weight through diet and exercise changes can lead to the elimination of type 2 diabetes and the return of proper beta cell function.
Beta cells are cells in the pancreas that produce and release the hormone insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.
Persistently high blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes can put extra strain on beta cells as they have to work harder to produce enough insulin to control their glucose levels.
Beta cells may eventually not be able to produce enough insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Loss of beta cell function in the early stages of type 2 diabetes can be reversed by weight loss ման lowering blood glucose levels.
Some medications can help control or prevent type 2 diabetes. However, the most effective steps a person can take to prevent or manage this condition are to achieve or maintain an average body weight և Regular exercise.